Graduiertenkolleg: Methods for Discrete Structures

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Monday Lecture and Colloquium

May 25 , 2009

Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
Institut für Informatik
Johann von Neumann-Haus
Rudower Chaussee 25
Raum 4.112

Lecture - 14:15

Artur Czumaj - Centre for Discrete Mathematics and its Applications (DIMAP) and Department of Computer Science, University of Warwick

Sublinear-time algorithms

We are often confronted with a huge amount of available information that is generated by large scale complex information systems that cannot even be stored in their entirety. Examples include the World Wide Web as a source of information, performance measurements in networks, etc. In many of these applications, polynomial algorithms that are efficient in relatively small inputs, may become impractical for input sizes of several gigabytes.
Managing and analyzing such data sets forces us to revisit the traditional notions of efficient algorithms. For example, when we consider approximation algorithms for clustering problems in metric spaces with $n$ points, then since their input size is $\Theta(n^2)$, they typically have $\Omega(n^2)$ running time. Clearly, such a running time is not feasible for massive data sets. Constructing a sublinear time algorithm may seem to be an impossible task since it allows one to read only a small fraction of the input. However, in recent years, we have seen development of sublinear time algorithms for optimization problems arising in such diverse areas as graph theory, geometry, algebraic computations, and computer graphics.

In this talk, we will present a few examples of sublinear algorithms. Our main focus will be on techniques used to design sublinear-time algorithms to estimate basic graph parameters (e.g., the average degree of the graph or the cost of its minimum spanning tree). We will also discuss the framework of property testing, an alternative notion of approximation for decision problems, which has been applied to give sublinear algorithms for a wide variety of problems. Our main focus will be on the so-called bounded degree model of computations.

Colloquium - 16:00

Florian Pfender - Rostock

Irregular labelings of graphs

One of the first theorems in many graph theory courses says that in every simple graph on at least two vertices, there is a pair of vertices with equal degrees. This is not longer true in multigraphs, these may be completely irregular, i.e., no two vertices have equal degree. Given a simple graph, what is the most efficient way to replace some edges by multi-edges to make it into an irregular multigraph? More precisely, what is the smallest $k$ such that there is a weight function $f: E(G)\to [k]$ such that all the weighted degrees are different (this is always possible as long as all components have at least three vertices)?

You can vary this question to only ask for the weighted degrees of adjacent vertices to be different. Here, for some graphs $k=1$ is enough. It was concectured by Karo{\'n}ski, {\L}uczak and Thomas that $k=3$ is sufficient for all graphs without components of size $2$.

In this talk, I will address both questions (and some more related ones) and show how to get new "records". Most of this is joint work with M. Karo{\'n}ski and M. Kalkowski.

Letzte Aktualisierung: 11.05.2009